Factors associated with first antenatal care (ANC) attendance within 12 weeks of pregnancy among women in Lira City, Northern Uganda: a facility-based cross- sectional study
Opollo, Marc Sam
Akullo, Betty Nancy
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Objective This study aimed at assessing factors associated with first antenatal care (ANC) attendance within 12 weeks of pregnancy among women in Lira City. Design A cross-sectional study. Settings The study was conducted in health facilities offering ANC services in Lira City, Northern Uganda. Participants The study was among 368 pregnant mothers attending their first ANC in the three selected facilities (Lira Regional Referral Hospital, Ober Health Center IV and Pentecostal Assembly of God Mission Health Center IV) in Lira City. Primary and secondary outcome measures Level of first ANC attendance within 12 weeks of pregnancy and associated factors. Results Early ANC attendance was 36.1%. Women who were: unmarried (adjusted OR (aOR): 0.40, 95% CI: 0.16 to 0.99), took >2 hours to reach a health facility (aOR: 0.21, 95% CI: 0.07 to 0.62), or not visited by village health teams or healthcare workers at home (aOR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.92) were less likely to attend their first ANC early. On the other hand, women who were: not knowing first that ANC guides parents on infant care (aOR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.06 to 4.67); pregnant without consent of spouse (aOR: 4.29, 95% CI: 1.75 to 10.55); attending ANC from a private facility (aOR: 2.89, 95% CI: 1.27 to 6.15); and having two to three healthcare workers present at the ANC clinic (aOR: 1.79, 95% CI: 1.03 to 3.13) were more likely to attend ANC early. Conclusions Despite the fact that the WHO recommends that all women begin ANC within 12 weeks after conception, Lira City in Northern Uganda had a low overall incidence of timely ANC initiation. Being unmarried, distance to reach a health facility, and being visited by village health teams or healthcare workers at home were all linked to timely ANC commencement. As a result, intervention efforts should concentrate on the highlighted determinants in order to promote ANC initiation in Lira City, Northern Uganda. This can be accomplished by providing information and education to the community on the timing and necessity of ANC in Northern Uganda.
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