Increased expression of GLUT-4 and hexokinase in rat epitrochlearis muscles exposed to AICAR in vitro
Ojuka, Edward O.
Nolte, Lorraine A.
Holloszy, John O.
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Increased expression of GLUT-4 and hexokinase in rat epitrochlearis muscles exposed to AICAR in vitro. J. Appl. Physiol. 88: 1072–1075, 2000.—Exercise acutely stimulates muscle glucose transport and also brings about an adaptive increase in the capacity of muscle for glucose uptake by inducing increases in GLUT-4 and hexokinase.1 Recent studies have provided evidence that activation of AMP protein kinase (AMPK) is involved in the stimulation of glucose transport by exercise. The purpose of this study was to determine whether activation of AMPK is also involved in mediating the adaptive increases in GLUT-4 and hexokinase. To this end, we examined the effect of incubating rat epitrochlearis muscles in culture medium for 18 h in the presence or absence of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR), which enters cells and is converted to the AMP analog ZMP, thus activating AMPK. Exposure of muscles to 0.5 mMAICAR in vitro for 18 h resulted in an ,50% increase in GLUT-4 protein and an ,80% increase in hexokinase. This finding provides strong evidence in support of the hypothesis that the activation of AMPK that occurs in muscle during exercise is involved in mediating the adaptive increases in GLUT-4 and hexokinase. AMP kinase; exercise; gene expression; skeletal muscle; tissue culture; 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside