|dc.description.abstract||Background: There have hardly been any reported cases of children presenting with Kaposi sarcoma as a second
malignancy following treatment for acute lymphoblastic leukemia outside a transplant setting.
Case presentation: We report a case of a 5-year-old boy of Bantu origin, which, to our knowledge, could be only the
second reported case of oral–visceral Kaposi sarcoma after acute lymphoblastic leukemia treatment. The patient presented
with a 1-month history of progressive, non-painful, soft tissue oral mass, 1 month after completing treatment
for high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia. He was successfully treated for Kaposi sarcoma on a two-drug regimen
(bleomycin and vincristine) with good clinical response.
Conclusion: Visceral Kaposi sarcoma as a second malignancy may occur after pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia
treatment, but its rarity makes it unlikely to raise suspicion among clinicians, thus precluding early diagnosis and
treatment. We recommend routine evaluation for Kaposi sarcoma lesions in children undergoing long-term surveillance
following treatment for childhood acute leukemia||en_US